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Aplican nuevos materiales para mejorar implantes dentales 30 Sep 2014


Strict Standards: Non-static method SimplePie_Misc::get_element() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cubaheal/public_html/classes/simplepie/simplepie.inc on line 13264

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Especialistas de la Universidad Aut贸noma de Baja California (UABC), en M茅xico, desarrollan implantes dentales de nueva generaci贸n a partir de mezclas de pol铆meros con cer谩micos de consistencia ligera. Hasta el momento los expertos de esa casa de estudios han optimizado el funcionamiento de esas herramientas dentales, pues simularon la fuerza repetitiva de la masticaci贸n y consideraron ese factor para lograr que el impacto del esfuerzo sea absorbido por la pieza y no por la estructura 贸sea.

img_22363Adem谩s, han propuesto algunas formulaciones que permiten que esas piezas dentales sean tan resistentes al esfuerzo de la masticaci贸n y a la corrosi贸n como los implantes de titanio (que frecuentemente son empleados por los odont贸logos), pero a un costo m谩s accesible. 鈥淎l optimizar la geometr铆a y la consistencia de los implantes podemos garantizar que 茅stos permanezcan inm贸viles por m谩s tiempo, pero con un costo menor que los implantes de titanio鈥, expres贸 el maestro Mauricio Paz Gonz谩lez, colaborador del proyecto, quien se encarga del dise帽o industrial.

Cabe destacar que la composici贸n de los implantes dentales, que proponen los especialistas de la UABC, permitir谩 la existencia de m谩s alternativas para el paciente. Los beneficios se visualizar铆an, de acuerdo con los desarrolladores, en un ahorro respecto al alto precio de los implantes que existen actualmente.

A trav茅s de simulaciones matem谩ticas, los expertos de la UABC buscan disminuir los niveles de estr茅s que se generan en los pacientes ante la implantaci贸n de esas piezas auxiliares. Cabe recordar que tradicionalmente los implantes son colocados con la misma din谩mica que un tornillo, y la estructura 贸sea funciona como base para la sujeci贸n de esas herramientas dentales.

Por su parte, el maestro Juan Antonio Paz Gonz谩lez, encargado de los procesos de manufactura de las piezas, refiri贸 que tambi茅n se busca que los implantes sean recubiertos con vitamina D, pues ese elemento estimula la producci贸n de tejido 贸seo alrededor de la pieza. Con ello, agreg贸, se produce mayor sujeci贸n; agreg贸 que una vez logrado ese paso, se desarrollar谩n pruebas de comparaci贸n con los implantes tradicionales.

El doctor Luis Jes煤s Villarreal G贸mez, titular de la investigaci贸n, refiri贸 que la fabricaci贸n de esos implantes no s贸lo mejorar谩 la salud bucal de los pacientes, sino que beneficiar谩 su econom铆a. 鈥淟a mayor铆a de las personas que requieren implantes son adultos mayores, que en muchas ocasiones se ven imposibilitados para realizarse una operaci贸n de esta naturaleza鈥, manifest贸.

Hasta el momento, el especialista ha propuesto varias formulaciones posibles para materializar los implantes. 鈥淎dicionalmente buscamos incluir vitamina D en la composici贸n de los implantes dentales, para lograr una mejor integraci贸n de la pieza con la estructura 贸sea del paciente鈥, destac贸 el cient铆fico de la UABC.
septiembre19/2014 (NCYT)

Un derivado de la vitamina D podr铆a servir en c谩ncer de p谩ncreas 30 Sep 2014


Strict Standards: Non-static method SimplePie_Misc::get_element() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cubaheal/public_html/classes/simplepie/simplepie.inc on line 13264

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Un compuesto sint茅tico derivado de la vitamina D podr铆a derribar la barrera celular que permite crecer al c谩ncer de p谩ncreas, uno de los m谩s dif铆ciles de tratar. El compuesto ya se ha empezado a probar en ensayos cl铆nicos, incluso antes de que salieran a la luz los resultados del estudio experimental que avalar铆a su utilidad en c谩ncer pancre谩tico, y que aparecen en la revista Cell.(doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2014.08.007)

Vitamina DEsta novedosa mol茅cula act煤a sobre el mecanismo de la fibrosis, por lo que podr铆a ser 煤til en otros tumores complejos, como el de pulm贸n, ri帽贸n e h铆gado. “A falta de pruebas que avalen la utilidad del f谩rmaco en pacientes con c谩ncer pancre谩tico, los datos obtenidos en experimentos con animales son robustos, y suponen una esperanza para hallar una nueva terapia contra esta terrible enfermedad”, afirma Ronald Evans, director del Laboratorio de Expresi贸n G茅nica del Instituto Salk, y autor principal del trabajo.

Evans recuerda que la tasa de supervivencia a cinco a帽os en el c谩ncer de p谩ncreas est谩 entre las m谩s bajas. “En parte, ello se debe a no entender bien la base de la enfermedad y su renovada resistencia a las terapias y, por ello, el trabajo que hacemos aqu铆 es tan importante”.

Se sab铆a que la capacidad del tumor para comunicarse con el microentorno tumoral es clave para su crecimiento. Las c茅lulas tumorales env铆an se帽ales que generan un entorno denso e inflamatorio, un escudo protector que no s贸lo le permite al tumor crecer sino que tambi茅n bloquea el acceso de las c茅lulas inmunes y de los tratamientos quimioter谩picos, lo que dificulta mucho el tratamiento del c谩ncer.

Evans se pregunt贸 c贸mo devolver a ese microentorno inflamado su estado normal, y as铆 debilitar las barreras protectoras del tumor. Para ello fij贸 su objetivo en un tipo de c茅lula, las estrelladas pancre谩ticas, que ante la presencia de las se帽ales tumorales generan factores de crecimiento que contribuyen al crecimiento del c谩ncer. Estos investigadores ya hab铆an visto que una modificaci贸n de la vitamina D pod铆a inactivar a este tipo de c茅lulas en el h铆gado, y ahora lo acaban de demostrar en el p谩ncreas.
septiembre 25/2014 (Diario M茅dico)

Mara H. Sherman,Ruth T. Yu,Dannielle D. Engle,Ning Ding,Annette R. Atkins,Herve Tiriac.Vitamin D Receptor-Mediated Stromal Reprogramming Suppresses Pancreatitis and Enhances Pancreatic Cancer Therapy.Cell. Volume 159, Issue 1, p80鈥93, 25 Sept 2014

El virus de chikungunya lleg贸 a Am茅rica Latina para quedarse 30 Sep 2014


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El virus que provoca la fiebre chikungunya lleg贸 a Am茅rica Latina hace menos de un a帽o y ya se torn贸 evidente que vino聽 para quedarse, dijo a la AFP Marcos Espinal, experto de la Organizaci贸n聽 Panamericana de la Salud (OPS).

virus-chik-234“Se trata de una enfermedad que, a pesar de tener una tasa de mortalidad聽 muy baja, va a entrar en un proceso end茅mico en la regi贸n, definitivamente”,聽 dijo Espinal, Director del Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles de la OPS.

El virus de chikungunya hab铆a sido identificado por primera vez en Tanzania聽 en 1952 y hasta diciembre del a帽o pasado era desconocido en Am茅rica Latina.

Sin embargo, el n煤mero de casos confirmados en las Am茅ricas ya ascend铆a a聽 9537 hace apenas una semana, con 113 muertos, al tiempo que el n煤mero de聽 episodios bajo sospecha ya llega a los 729 178, en su absoluta mayor铆a en聽 pa铆ses del Caribe.

El virus es trasmitido por el mismo mosquito que transmite el dengue, Aedes聽 aegypti, y por la variante Aedes albopictus pero como enfermedad posee聽 signos y s铆ntomas diferentes.

Al fin de un proceso de incubaci贸n de tres d铆as, el virus chicungunya genera聽 bruscamente fiebre alta y manchas en la piel, pero luego genera fuertes dolores聽 en las articulaciones que pueden tardar meses y hasta a帽os en ser superados.

Hasta el momento no existe un tratamiento espec铆fico ni una vacuna聽 disponible contra el virus.

Regi贸n del Caribe es la m谩s afectada -

“Se trata de una enfermedad que ha ingresado a la regi贸n por el Caribe,聽 pero ya Colombia, Venezuela y Brasil han notificado casos, se ha expandido e聽 ingresar谩 en un proceso end茅mico. Y los pa铆ses tendr谩n que manejarlo en este聽 sentido”, dijo.

Para Espinal, la mayor铆a de los pa铆ses de la regi贸n ya tiene alg煤n tipo de聽 pol铆tica p煤blica o estructura disponible para combatir el dengue, y esa base聽 debe ser utilizada para contener la expansi贸n del chikungunya.

“La estrategia de control de vectores y el abordaje cl铆nico b谩sicamente se聽 aplica tambi茅n al chicungunya, como el control de criaderos de mosquitos o aguas聽 estancadas, que ya se usan para combatir el dengue”, apunt贸 el experto.

Los datos de la OPS muestran que el pa铆s m谩s afectado hasta ahora es la聽 Guyana Francesa, donde ya se registraron 2646 casos confirmados. Pero en聽 Rep煤blica Dominicana hay nada menos que 486 206 casos bajo sospecha.

Le siguen Guadalupe (430 confirmados y m谩s de 77 000 bajo sospecha), Hait铆聽 y Martinica.

En Sudam茅rica, Venezuela es por ahora el pa铆s que sufre un mayor impacto聽 del virus, con 328 casos y otros 841 bajo sospecha, mientras que Brasil聽 confirm贸 dos.

Colombia, que ya confirm贸 42 episodios (1308 bajo sospecha), registr贸 esta聽 semana su primera muerte por esta causa: una beb茅 de diez meses proveniente de聽 Venezuela.

En Am茅rica Central las preocupaciones se centran en El Salvador, donde hay聽 registro de 54 casos confirmados hace una semana, y m谩s de 16 000 sospechas.

En este escenario, los pa铆ses latinoamericanos ya han dado los primeros聽 pasos.

El gobierno de Costa Rica, por ejemplo, recomend贸 a sus ciudadanos a聽 inicios de este mes que posterguen eventuales viajes a Rep煤blica Dominicana por聽 causa del virus, al tiempo que Panam谩 y Guatemala ya activaron alertas聽 nacionales en este sentido.

En Venezuela, el presidente Nicol谩s Maduro anunci贸 la creaci贸n de un聽 “comit茅 especial” para reducir el impacto del dengue y del chikungunya.

Per煤, que ha registrado tres casos importados, emiti贸 la semana pasada un聽 alerta en sus centros del salud ante el riesgo de transmisi贸n aut贸ctona.

La revista especializada brit谩nica The Lancet public贸 en su 煤ltimo n煤mero聽 un art铆culo afirmando que especialistas estadounidenses hab铆an iniciado las聽 pruebas de una vacuna contra el virus de la fiebre chikungunya en seres humanos.聽 El Instituto Pasteur, de Par铆s, tambi茅n trabaja en una vacuna.

Ya en el mes de julio la directora general de la Organizaci贸n Mundial de la聽 Salud (OMS), Margaret Chan, alert贸 durante una visita a La Habana que “la聽 situaci贸n en la regi贸n es realmente grave”.
26 septiembre (AFP)

Tomado del bolet铆n de selecci贸n tem谩tica de Prensa Latina: Copyright 2013 鈥淎gencia Informativa Latinoamericana Prensa Latina S.A.鈥

Salen a la venta primeras lentes que previenen degeneraci贸n de la retina 30 Sep 2014


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Las primeras lentes de contacto del mundo que protegen frente a la fototoxicidad producida por la luz violeta y azul y previenen la degeneraci贸n macular de la retina est谩n ya en el mercado, fruto de una investigaci贸n de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM).

lentesEstas lentes de contacto, las primeras con certificado de seguridad retiniano que se fabrican en el mundo, son el resultado de casi 13 a帽os de investigaci贸n, llevada a cabo por un equipo dirigido por la profesora Celia S谩nchez-Ramos, quien particip贸 en su presentaci贸n.

La doctora explic贸 que el trabajo parti贸 de una premisa: “La luz que nos rodea es mucha o much铆sima; de hecho, estamos expuestos durante 5500 horas al a帽o”, dijo.

S谩nchez-Ramos destac贸 que la cantidad de luz es cada vez mayor, pues a la luz natural y la iluminaci贸n artificial, hay que sumar la que emiten dispositivos como tel茅fonos m贸viles, tabletas y ordenadores.

Aunque el sistema visual humano tiene m茅todos fisiol贸gicos de protecci贸n “no les hemos dado tiempo, ya que la tecnolog铆a ha ido much铆simo m谩s r谩pido que la capacidad del sistema humano para adaptarse”, dijo.

La profesora S谩nchez-Ramos afirm贸 que con esta investigaci贸n se da “un paso m谩s para reducir la cantidad de una banda de la luz” pues no todas son igual.

De hecho, las bandas del azul y el violeta son diez veces m谩s energ茅ticas y sobre ellas se ha actuado.

Para ello, a la caracter铆stica principal de las lentillas que es compensar un defecto 贸ptico (miop铆a, astigmatismo o hipermetrop铆a) se le ha a帽adido una funci贸n protectora mediante “una especie de filtro” que act煤a de barrera para que la luz que da帽a no llegue al fondo del ojo.

“Es decir, transformamos una luz que puede tener la calidad mejor o peor en una luz de mucha mejor calidad, solo poni茅ndonos las lentes”, explic贸 S谩nchez-Ramos.

El director t茅cnico de Servilens, empresa que comercializa las lentillas, precis贸 que, adem谩s de la protecci贸n, estas lentes de contacto tienen el valor a帽adido de prevenir la degeneraci贸n macular de la retina, un tejido que no se regenera.

Estar谩n disponibles en m谩s de 40 000 tipos de lentes diferentes, no solo las que corrigen defectos, sino tambi茅n en aquellas que no tienen graduaci贸n.
septiembre 25/2014 (EFE).-

Tomado del bolet铆n de selecci贸n tem谩tica de Prensa Latina: Copyright 2013 鈥淎gencia Informativa Latinoamericana Prensa Latina S.A.鈥

El aceite de pescado podr铆a reducir la frecuencia de convulsiones epil茅pticas 30 Sep 2014


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El aceite de pescado son capaces de cruzar del torrente sangu铆neo hasta las c茅lulas del coraz贸n donde trabajan para estabilizar el ritmo cardiaco y proteger contra los ataques al coraz贸n. Esto es particularmente importante para las personas con epilepsia, ya que tienen un riesgo significativamente mayor de sufrir un ataque cardiaco que los que no padecen la afecci贸n.

fotonoticia_20140909091226_260La investigaci贸n experimental indica que los 谩cidos grasos omega 3 tambi茅n pueden atravesar en el sistema nervioso central, donde reducen la excitabilidad de las c茅lulas del cerebro que desencadenan convulsiones. Pero an谩lisis previos revelaron que altas dosis de aceite de pescado en la frecuencia de convulsiones en personas cuya epilepsia ya no responde al tratamiento no afectaron a la frecuencia de las convulsiones.

A las 24 personas de este nuevo estudio, cuya epilepsia ya no era sensible a los f谩rmacos, se les administraron tres tratamientos separados por un periodo de seis semanas y con una duraci贸n de diez semanas. Estos consistieron en: tres c谩psulas de aceite de pescado al d铆a (dosis baja), equivalentes a 1,080 mg de 谩cidos grasos omega-3 cada d铆a, m谩s tres c谩psulas de aceite de ma铆z (placebo); seis c谩psulas de aceite de pescado al d铆a, lo que equivale a 2,160 mg todos los d铆as; y tres c谩psulas de aceite de ma铆z dos veces al d铆a.

El n煤mero medio de convulsiones entre los que tomaban aceite de pescado en bajas dosis fue de alrededor de 12 en un mes, en comparaci贸n con un poco m谩s de 17 ataques mensuales en el caso de la dosis alta, y poco m谩s de 18 para el placebo, lo que equivale a una ca铆da de un tercio (33,6 %) en el n煤mero de convulsiones cuando la dosis es baja, seg煤n el trabajo, publicado en Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry.(doi:10.1136/jnnp-2014-307749)

Dos personas en el grupo de la dosis baja estaban completamente libres de crisis durante las diez semanas de la prueba pero ninguna de las personas que tomaban la alta dosis o el placebo se libr贸 de tener convulsiones. Las dosis m谩s bajas de aceite de pescado tambi茅n se relacionaron con una modesta ca铆da en la presi贸n arterial de 1,95 mm Hg durante las diez semanas, a diferencia del aceite de pescado em alta dosis que se asoci贸 con un aumento promedio de 1,84 mm Hg.

Sin embargo, el aceite de pescado no se relacion贸 con cambios en la frecuencia cardiaca o de los niveles de grasa en sangre o la gravedad de las convulsiones. Los investigadores advierten que es necesario un estudio mucho m谩s amplio para confirmar o refutar estos resultados antes de sacar conclusiones y formular recomendaciones, pero escriben que “el aceite de pescado en dosis bajas es una intervenci贸n segura y de bajo costo que puede reducir los ataques y mejorar la salud cardiovascular en las personas con epilepsia”.
septiembre 10/2014 (Diario Salud)

Christopher M DeGiorgio,Patrick R Miller,Ronald Harper,Jeffrey Gornbein,Lara Schrader,Jason Soss.Fish oil (n-3 fatty acids) in drug resistant epilepsy: a randomised placebo-controlled crossover study.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 8 Sept 2014

La gen茅tica determina la preferencia por las bebidas alcoh贸licas 30 Sep 2014


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La literatura cient铆fica mostraba hasta ahora que los receptores del sabor amargo se encuentran directamente relacionados con el gusto por las bebidas alcoh贸licas. Un nuevo estudio, publicado en聽 la revista Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research (DOI: 10.1111/acer.12527), indica que esta predisposici贸n podr铆a ser gen茅tica.

bebidas alcoh贸licasEl trabajo revela c贸mo ciertas variaciones en el genoma producen una percepci贸n m谩s intensa del sabor amargo, generando una aversi贸n a ciertas bebidas alcoh贸licas como la cerveza.

La investigaci贸n, liderada por Alissa Nolden, experta en ciencia de los alimentos de la Universidad de Pensilvania (EE UU), indica que los poliformismos 鈥搗ariaciones gen茅ticas posibles en una poblaci贸n鈥 en los receptores del sabor amargo afectan a la intensidad con la que se perciben los sabores.

鈥淐uando las personas prueban el alcohol en el laboratorio, la cantidad de amargor que experimentan difiere, lo que est谩 relacionado con la versi贸n del gen receptor que posee cada individuo鈥, explica John E. Hayes, director del Centro de Evaluaci贸n Sensorial en la universidad estadounidense y otro de los autores.

Seg煤n los autores, la sensaci贸n amarga podr铆a ser un mecanismo de defensa del organismo ante la ingesta de compuestos t贸xicos encontrados en plantas. Aunque las sensaciones que provocan los alimentos y las bebidas influyen en su consumo, para los expertos esta predisposici贸n gen茅tica no es determinante.

鈥淧uede ser m谩s f谩cil para algunas personas aprender a comer o beber ciertos alimentos y bebidas, incluyendo alcohol. Pero el aprendizaje, la experiencia previa y el medio ambiente tambi茅n desempe帽an un papel muy importante en las preferencias y decisiones que tomamos”, apuntan.

Tal y como afirma a Sinc Nolden, 鈥渃on la exposici贸n repetida, algunos individuos pueden aprender a disfrutar cierto amargor en sus bebidas y comidas, como ocurre con el chocolate negro o el caf茅鈥.

Adem谩s de los receptores del gusto implicados 鈥揟AS2R1 y TAS2R38鈥, este estudio indica que el receptor del calor TPRV1 podr铆a estar implicado tambi茅n en la preferencia por las bebidas alcoh贸licas.

“Este gen es importante ya que el alcohol provoca sensaciones de ardor, adem谩s del sabor amargo”. Seg煤n subraya Nolden, este receptor 鈥渆s el encargado de percibir dolor cuando tocamos una superficie caliente o comemos algo picante鈥.

Individuos propensos a la adicci贸n

Para realizar el experimento, los investigadores dieron a probar diferentes soluciones de alcohol a 93 participantes de raza blanca que ten铆an distintas variaciones en los genes receptores estudiados.

El objetivo fue analizar la reacci贸n de los receptores al alcohol puro ya que 鈥渓as bebidas alcoh贸licas contienen otras sustancias encargadas de activar el sabor y que pueden suprimir su amargor鈥.

Dado que cada individuo posee un genotipo y este no se puede asignar aleatoriamente, los investigadores concluyen que los resultados deben ser considerados provisionales hasta que el estudio se realice en una muestra mayor.

Para los autores, estas variaciones gen茅ticas podr铆an utilizarse en la prevenci贸n del riesgo de adicci贸n de una persona que se expone por primera vez al alcohol. Seg煤n Nolden, si se llegara a prever el consumo a trav茅s de la gen茅tica, 鈥渟e podr铆an realizar intervenciones personalizadas a individuos propensos en una edad temprana鈥.

Sin embargo, para Russell Keast, investigador en la Universidad de Deakin en Australia y autor del trabajo, este estudio no tiene m谩s alcance que la asociaci贸n de ambas variables: los factores gen茅ticos y la intensidad en la percepci贸n de ciertas caracter铆sticas del alcohol.

鈥淓l amargor puede influenciar o no la toma de alcohol鈥, sostiene Keast, quien apunta que ser谩n necesarias m谩s investigaciones para evaluar si dichas variantes est谩n vinculadas con el consumo.
septiembre 23/2014 (SINC)

Alissa L. Allen, John E. McGeary, John E. Hayes. ‘Polymorphisms in TRPV1 and TAS2Rs AssociateWithSensations From Sampled Ethanol’ . Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research. 25 Sep 2014

 
 
 
Clínica Central Cira García
IPK (Instituto de Medicina Tropical)
IPK (Instituto de Medicina Tropical)
INOR
Instituto Nacional de Oncológica y Radiobiologia
Ciren
CIREN(Centro Internacional de Restauración Neurológica).
Centro de Salud La Pradera
Centro Internacional de Salud La Pradera
 
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