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Noticias de Salud.

El abuso del consumo de omeprazol aumenta el riesgo de déficit de vitamina B12 27 Jan 2015


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Aunque investigaciones previas hab√≠an mostrado una relaci√≥n entre la ingesta prolongada de f√°rmacos inhibidores de protones (como el omeprazol) y la deficiencia de vitamina B12, esos estudios eran peque√Īos y no se basaban en un an√°lisis poblacional.
En estudio reciente publicado en JAMA
Se  ha evaluado esta relación en un grupo de 25 mil 956 pacientes con un diagnóstico de déficit de esta vitamina y un grupo control de 184 mil 199 personas sanas.

El an√°lisis constata que las personas que tomaron diariamente un medicamento del grupo del omeprazol durante dos o m√°s a√Īos ten√≠an un 65¬† % m√°s de probabilidades de presentar niveles bajos de vitamina B12 que quienes no hab√≠an ingerido estos f√°rmacos durante un periodo tan prolongado.

También, quienes se medicaron con antagonistas de los receptores H2 de la histamina (como la ranitidina) presentaban un riesgo un 25 % mayor de este déficit vitamínico.

Se comprobó que tomar diariamente 1, 5 comprimidos se asociaba a un riesgo un 95 % superior de esta deficiencia en comparación con una diaria inferior a 0, 7 comprimidos.

El omeprazol es un¬† principio activo¬† prescrito¬† con mucha frecuencia en algunos pa√≠ses¬† y el d√©ficit de vitamina B12 puede conducir a trastornos como demencia, da√Īo neurol√≥gico, anemia y otras complicaciones

enero 26 / 2015   (Diariosalud)

Varios tipos de c√°ncer pueden ser atribuidos a mutaciones aleatorias del ADN 27 Jan 2015


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Dos tercios de los casos de cáncer pueden ser atribuidos a mutaciones aleatorias del ADN y no a factores hereditarios o factores de riesgo. Cambiar el estilo de vida por uno más saludable podría ayudar a evitar ciertos tipos de la enfermedad, pero en otros no sería tan efectivo.

La ciencia busca las causas del c√°ncer para lograr su remedio. Sin embargo, una circunstancia desarma la lucha de los investigadores.

El azar es b√°sico para que un c√°ncer nazca y se desarrolle. Seg√ļn un estudio que publica Science, dos tercios de los casos de c√°ncer de varios tipos pueden ser atribuidos a mutaciones aleatorias del ADN que se acumulan en varias partes del cuerpo durante la divisi√≥n celular y no a factores hereditarios o factores de riesgo.

 Los investigadores estudiaron 31 tipos de cáncer y descubrieron que 22 de ellos, incluyendo la leucemia y el cáncer de páncreas, huesos, testículos, ovarios y cerebro, podrían ser explicados en gran medida por esas mutaciones aleatorias: básicamente mala suerte biológica. Los otros nueve tipos, entre ellos el cáncer colorrectal, el cáncer a la piel conocido como carcinoma de células basales y el cáncer pulmonar vinculado al consumo de tabaco, eran más fuertemente influenciados por factores genéticos y ambientales, como comportamiento de riesgo o exposición carcinógena.

“Cuando alguien enferma de c√°ncer, las personas quieren saber de inmediato por qu√©”, dice Bert Vogelstein, onc√≥logo del Hospital Universitario de Medicina Johns Hopkins, en Baltimore, quien ha dirigido el estudio junto al biomatem√°tico Cristian Tomasetti, tambi√©n de este mismo centro. ‚ÄúNos gusta creer que hay una raz√≥n. Y el motivo real en muchos casos no es que uno no se comport√≥ como era debido o que se expuso a alguna mala influencia del ambiente, fue s√≥lo que esa persona tuvo mala suerte. Es como perder en la loter√≠a”, asegura.

Tomasetti explica que las mutaciones da√Īinas se producen “sin ninguna otra raz√≥n particular m√°s que la aleatoriedad”, dado que las c√©lulas madre del organismo se dividen en varios tejidos. As√≠, puntualiza que el estudio indica que cambiar el estilo de vida y h√°bitos como el fumar para evitar el riesgo de c√°ncer podr√≠an ayudar a evitar ciertos tipos de la enfermedad, pero que para otros no ser√≠a tan efectivo. “Es por eso que deber√≠amos centrar m√°s investigaci√≥n y recursos en encontrar formas de detectar esos c√°nceres en etapas tempranas y m√°s curables”, dice Tomasetti.

Los investigadores trazaron la cifra acumulativa de las divisiones a lo largo de la vida en las c√©lulas madre de un tejido determinado ‚Äďpor ejemplo en los pulmones o colon‚Äď y las compararon con el riesgo de c√°ncer en la vida de ese tejido. En t√©rminos generales, los tejidos que pasan por m√°s divisiones ‚Äďincrementando de ese modo la probabilidad mutaciones aleatorias‚Äď eran m√°s propensas a tener tumores.

El estudio no cubrió todos los tipos de cáncer. Así, no se consideraron el cáncer de mama ni el de próstata porque los investigadores no pudieron determinar tasas confiables de división de las células madre.

enero 25/2015 (Diario Médico)

La diabetes podr√≠a afectar al crecimiento cerebral de los ni√Īos 27 Jan 2015


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Un elevado nivel de glucosa en la sangre podr√≠a ralentizar el crecimiento cerebral en los ni√Īos peque√Īos que padecen diabetes de tipo 1, indica un estudio reciente
La investigaci√≥n incluy√≥ a 144 ni√Īos entre¬† 4-9 a√Īos de edad¬† con diabetes tipo 1 y¬†¬† 72 ni√Īos sanos de la misma edad que actuaron como controles.

Todos se sometieron a resonancias magnéticas estructurales cerebrales de alta resolución y a pruebas para evaluar sus capacidades mentales, además de una monitorización continua de los niveles de glucosa en sangre, tanto al inicio del estudio como a los 18 meses.

Al final del seguimiento, en comparaci√≥n con los ni√Īos sanos, el cerebro de los ni√Īos con diabetes mostraba un crecimiento general y local m√°s lento de la sustancia gris y de la sustancia blanca. Esas diferencias se asociaron con unos niveles de glucosa en sangre m√°s elevados y variables, aunque los investigadores no hallaron diferencias significativas en las capacidades de pensamiento y memoria.

La investigación aparece publicada en  American Diabetes Association Journals

Los resultados muestran la vulnerabilidad de los cerebros jóvenes en desarrollo a los niveles anómalamente elevados de glucosa en sangre, incluso cuando la duración de la diabetes sea relativamente breve. La mitad de las concentraciones de glucosa durante el estudio se midieron en el rango alto

enero 23 /2015 (Neurología)

Estudiar dibujo y pintura genera cambios positivos en el cerebro 27 Jan 2015


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Un estudio llevado a cabo por investigadores del Dartmouth College en Hanover (New Hampshire, Estados Unidos) nos muestra cómo estudiar arte puede cambiar nuestro cerebro y nuestras habilidades.
Alexander Schlegel y el resto de su equipo comprobaron los cambios de comportamiento y neurales en los estudiantes de dibujo y pintura en comparación con los estudiantes que no estudian arte. Llevaron  a cabo un experimento en el que compararon a un grupo de 17 jóvenes estudiantes que realizaron un curso de tres meses de introducción al dibujo y pintura (de entre 19 y 24 horas semanales de práctica) con otro grupo de 18 jóvenes que no realizaron el curso de arte pero sí otro de introducción a la química orgánica.

A todos los participantes se les realizó una  resonancia magnética funcional para analizar los cambios cerebrales .Se investigaron tres aspectos de la cognición vital para muchos artistas visuales: la cognición creativa, la percepción y la percepción a la acción. Evaluaron:

1. Cognici√≥n creativa o capacidad para pensar de forma distinta, generar ideas nuevas ligando diferente informaci√≥n, lo que se evalu√≥ a trav√©s de pruebas espec√≠ficas¬† que eval√ļan creatividad.
2. Percepción visual como la habilidad para crear representaciones realistas del mundo, que los experimentadores calcularon en función de los cambios en la actividad cerebral mientras los participantes juzgaban las propiedades de ilusiones visuales.
3. Paso de la percepción a la acción o capacidad para convertir los pensamientos en dibujos, que sería el acto motor de mano, brazo y ojos en este caso. Para valorar esta capacidad se pidió que hicieran una serie de gestos de dibujo rápidos basados en la observación de figuras humanas mientras estaban en el escáner.

Se encontr√≥ que los estudiantes de arte¬† aumentaron su creatividad¬† a trav√©s de la reorganizaci√≥n de la sustancia blanca prefrontal pero no encontraron ning√ļn cambio significativo en la capacidad de percepci√≥n o actividad neuronal relacionada en los estudiantes de arte en relaci√≥n con el grupo control.

Por otra parte, los estudiantes de arte mejoraron  en su capacidad para dibujar figuras humanas de observación, y los patrones multivariados de la actividad cortical y cerebelosa evocado por esta tarea de dibujo se hicieron cada vez separable entre arte y no arte estudiantes.  Los hallazgos sugieren que la aparición de habilidades artísticas visuales con el apoyo de la plasticidad en vías neuronales que permiten la cognición creativa y medien la integración sensoriomotoras.

Esto √ļltimo, con el tiempo se reflej√≥ en el patr√≥n de actividad neural en la corteza y el cerebelo, siendo ese perfil de actividad cada vez m√°s diferente entre los estudiantes de arte y los del otro grupo.

Los resultados, publicados recientemente en la revista científica Science , apoyan la idea de que la plasticidad cerebral permite la adquisición de habilidades artísticas a través de cambios cerebrales en áreas que se encargan de la cognición creativa y la integración entre la percepción y el movimiento.

Tenemos cerebros que pueden cambiar con la práctica de habilidades y ello nos permite mejorar ciertas capacidades. Una vez más, no nos conformemos con el cerebro que nos ha tocado y saquémosle todo el partido posible.

Enero 26/ 2015 (Pubmed)

Fuente :SchlegelA, Alexander P.,Fogelson S., Li Xueting.,Lu Zhengang.,Kohler P.,Riley E.; Tse P., Meng Ming. The artist emerges: Visual art learning alters neural structure and function. Neuroimage  15 Jan 15; 105:440-51. doi: 10.1016

 

El juego en computadora eficaz en el tratamiento de ni√Īos con trastorno por d√©ficit de atenci√≥n /hiperactividad 27 Jan 2015


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El juego en computadora¬† eficaz en el tratamiento de¬† ni√Īos con trastorno por d√©ficit de atenci√≥n /hiperactividad

Un estudio piloto ha probado la eficacia a corto y largo plazo (nueve semanas de seguimiento) de un entrenamiento de mejora de las funciones ejecutivas con elementos de juego para los ni√Īos con trastorno por d√©ficit de atenci√≥n /hiperactividad en un entorno cl√≠nico ambulatorio, utilizando un dise√Īo aleatorizado con control de lista de espera.

Además, en una submuestra, concretamente los pacientes tratados con metilfenidato, se evaluaron los efectos aditivos de la formación en funciones ejecutivas. Ha sido publicado en  J Atten Disord

Un total de 40 ni√Īos,¬† en edades entre¬† 8-12 a√Īos, fueron aleatorizados a la formaci√≥n en funciones ejecutivas o a la lista de espera.

El entrenamiento consistió en pruebas de inhibición, flexibilidad cognitiva y memoria de trabajo durante 25 sesiones.

El resultado del tratamiento se evaluó a través de la calificación de las funciones ejecutivas por padres y maestros, y de los síntomas de trastorno por déficit de atención /hiperactividad, trastorno negativista desafiante y alteraciones de la conducta.

Los ni√Īos con entrenamiento en funciones ejecutivas mostraron una mejor√≠a m√°s significativa que los del grupo en lista de espera en cuanto a la calificaci√≥n de las funciones ejecutivas por los padres y en cuanto a los s√≠ntomas de rastorno por d√©ficit de atenci√≥n /hiperactividad , tanto en la muestra total como en la submuestra de ni√Īos tratados con metilfenidato. Los efectos se mantuvieron durante el seguimiento, por lo que parece existir una evidencia prometedora sobre la eficacia de un entrenamiento en funciones ejecutivas con elementos de juego.
enero 26 /2015  (Neurología)

 

La inestabilidad postural podría dar indicios sobre accidente cerebrovascular silente 27 Jan 2015


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No poder ¬†mantenerse sobre una pierna durante 20 segundos puede evidenciar un sangrado microsc√≥pico en el cerebro ¬†o accidente cerebrovascular peque√Īo ocurrido previamente, y todo lo que implica ¬†alto riesgo de ¬†padecer ¬†un futuro accidente cerebrovascular.

Estudio reciente ¬†publicado en ¬†Ahajournals ; reporta que las personas que no logran mantenerse estable ¬†durante 20 segundos sobre una pierna o que presenta dificultades para andar, pueden tener a√Īadidos de forma potencial¬† anomal√≠as cerebrales y deterioro mental.

El estudio evalu√≥ ¬†mil 387 hombres y mujeres con una edad media de 67 a√Īos que hicieron el intento de mantener el equilibrio ¬†parados sobre una pierna durante un minuto. ¬†A los cuales se les realiz√≥ resonancia ¬†magn√©tica ¬†para evaluar lesiones en los peque√Īos vasos sangu√≠neos cerebrales dependientes de microhemorragias ¬†o accidente cerebrovascular silente.

Qued√≥ evidenciado el v√≠nculo entre ¬†la imposibilidad ¬†de ¬†mantener el equilibrio ¬†por m√°s de 20 segundos y la presencia de se√Īales en la resonancia magn√©tica ¬†que prueban existencia previa en el cerebro de una¬† hemorragia microsc√≥pica¬† o un accidente cerebrovascular peque√Īo.

Se precis√≥ adem√°s que los problemas de equilibrio estaban acompa√Īados de reducci√≥n de las¬† capacidades para la memoria y el pensamiento.

En aquellos que ten√≠an antecedentes de haber padecido dos o m√°s accidentes cerebrovasculares min√ļsculos, se ¬†vio que la tercera parte presentaban problemas del equilibrio ¬†y entre los que ten√≠an antecedentes de accidente cerebrovascular el 16 % ten√≠a inestabilidad para mantener la posici√≥n de pie.

El 30 % de los que evidenciaron dos o más microhemorragias y el 15 % de los que objetivaron una microhemorragia tenían problemas con el equilibrio

enero 26 / 2015 (Neurología)

 

 
 
 
Clínica Central Cira García
IPK (Instituto de Medicina Tropical)
IPK (Instituto de Medicina Tropical)
INOR
Instituto Nacional de Oncológica y Radiobiologia
Ciren
CIREN(Centro Internacional de Restauración Neurológica).
Centro de Salud La Pradera
Centro Internacional de Salud La Pradera
 
Cubandhealth.com :.: Todos lo derechos reservados. 2013
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