Strict Standards: Non-static method SimplePie_Misc::fix_protocol() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cubaheal/public_html/classes/simplepie/simplepie.inc on line 809

Strict Standards: Non-static method SimplePie_Misc::normalize_url() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cubaheal/public_html/classes/simplepie/simplepie.inc on line 8582

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Strict Standards: call_user_func() expects parameter 1 to be a valid callback, non-static method SimplePie_Cache::create() should not be called statically in /home/cubaheal/public_html/classes/simplepie/simplepie.inc on line 1536

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Strict Standards: Non-static method SimplePie_Misc::get_curl_version() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cubaheal/public_html/classes/simplepie/simplepie.inc on line 7609

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Conferencia de sida por ampliar acceso a terapias antirretrovirales 29 Jul 2014


Strict Standards: Non-static method SimplePie_Misc::get_element() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cubaheal/public_html/classes/simplepie/simplepie.inc on line 13264

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Strict Standards: Non-static method SimplePie_Misc::entities_decode() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cubaheal/public_html/classes/simplepie/simplepie.inc on line 8488

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Strict Standards: Non-static method SimplePie_Misc::absolutize_url() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cubaheal/public_html/classes/simplepie/simplepie.inc on line 13282

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Strict Standards: Non-static method SimplePie_Misc::normalize_url() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cubaheal/public_html/classes/simplepie/simplepie.inc on line 8401

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La necesidad de incrementar el n√ļmero de personas en tratamiento antirretroviral y el alto precio de estos f√°rmacos son objeto de debate en la 20 conferencia internacional sobre sida, que entra¬† en su quinta jornada de trabajo.

sidaEl desarrollo de nuevos medicamentos más asequibles, así como herramientas para el seguimiento de las personas seropositivas, que aseguren una mejor calidad de atención, como es la determinación de la carga viral en sangre, también ocupa la agenda de los más de 12 mil participantes en el foro inaugurado el pasado domingo.

Controlando la carga viral detectamos problemas de adherencia al tratamiento muy pronto, indicaron especialistas.

Las pruebas de carga viral identifican con mayor precisión y rapidez a las personas que necesitan cambiar a segunda o tercera línea de terapia si su régimen está fallando, manifestaron.

Sabemos qué herramientas utilizar para que el virus del VIH llegue a ser indetectable y permanezca así, pero en la mayoría de los países su precio las hace inalcanzables, aseveraron.

Cientos de seminarios, conferencias y talleres sobre el impacto que ha dejado la pandemia en la salud, costumbres, leyes, discriminación, entre otras temáticas se incluyen en la agenda del foro.

También está una propuesta de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), para utilizar terapia antirretroviral como prevención en personas no infectadas, pero que tienen conductas de alto riesgo.

De acuerdo con el m√°s reciente informe sobre la epidemia, hay en el mundo 35 millones de personas infectadas, de las cuales 2,1 millones se contagiaron en 2013. El n√ļmero de muertes por sida disminuy√≥ en 2013.
julio 23/2014 (PL)

Tomado del bolet√≠n de selecci√≥n tem√°tica de Prensa Latina: Copyright 2013 ‚ÄúAgencia Informativa Latinoamericana Prensa Latina S.A.‚ÄĚ

Mejoras en visión artificial para algunas personas invidentes 29 Jul 2014


Strict Standards: Non-static method SimplePie_Misc::get_element() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cubaheal/public_html/classes/simplepie/simplepie.inc on line 13264

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Hace apenas 20 a√Īos, la visi√≥n bi√≥nica era m√°s un tema de ciencia-ficci√≥n que una meta m√©dica realista. Pero en a√Īos recientes ha salido al mercado en Estados Unidos y Europa Occidental la primera tecnolog√≠a de visi√≥n artificial, permitiendo que personas ciegas a consecuencia de la retinitis pigmentosa recuperen parcialmente la vista. Aunque es notable, esta tecnolog√≠a tiene sus l√≠mites. Ha permitido que personas antes invidentes puedan ahora ver la puerta por donde entrar o salir de una habitaci√≥n, e incluso leer letras del tama√Īo de titulares de peri√≥dico, pero no da tanto de s√≠ como para permitirles conducir un autom√≥vil, correr por la calle por ejemplo para hacer footing, o ver con cierto nivel de detalle el rostro de un ser querido.

Visión biónicaUn equipo de científicos dirigido desde la Universidad de Stanford en California, Estados Unidos, y que cuenta con financiación a cargo del Instituto Nacional del Ojo, uno de los Institutos Nacionales estadounidenses de la Salud, está tratando de mejorar la tecnología al actuar sobre células específicas de la retina (el tejido neural situado en la parte posterior del ojo que convierte la luz en actividad eléctrica).

En las pruebas de laboratorio, el equipo de E.J. Chichilnisky ha usado estimulaci√≥n el√©ctrica de c√©lulas de la retina para producir los mismos patrones de actividad que aparecen cuando la retina ve un objeto en movimiento. Aunque a√ļn queda m√°s trabajo por hacer, lo logrado hasta ahora ya constituye un paso importante hacia la restauraci√≥n de la visi√≥n natural de alta fidelidad en personas invidentes, seg√ļn los investigadores. Los nuevos experimentos, en palabras de Chichilnisky, demuestran que es factible reproducir patrones naturales de actividad en la retina con una precisi√≥n exquisita.

La retina contiene varias capas de c√©lulas. La primera capa alberga c√©lulas fotorreceptoras, las cuales detectan la luz y la convierten en se√Īales el√©ctricas. La retinitis pigmentosa y varias otras enfermedades que causan ceguera son causadas por la p√©rdida de estas c√©lulas. La estrategia en la que se basan muchas retinas bi√≥nicas es no depender de los fotorreceptores y directamente estimular la capa de c√©lulas ganglionares retinales, la √ļltima parada en el circuito de la retina antes de que las se√Īales visuales lleguen al cerebro.

Existen varios tipos de prótesis de retina en desarrollo. Argus II es el más conocido de estos dispositivos.

La tecnología actual no tiene suficiente especificidad o precisión como para reproducir la visión natural. Aunque gran parte del procesamiento visual se produce en el cerebro, las células ganglionares retinales realizan una parte de este trabajo de procesamiento. Hay entre 1 y 1,5 millones de células de este tipo dentro de la retina, en al menos 20 variedades. La visión natural (incluyendo la capacidad de ver detalles de forma, color, profundidad y movimiento) requiere la activación de las células correctas en el momento adecuado.

El nuevo estudio muestra que una estimulación eléctrica sofisticada, siguiendo los patrones adecuados, puede lograr precisamente esto en el tejido retinal aislado.

En el trabajo de investigación y desarrollo también han participado Lauren Jepson, del Instituto Salk en La Jolla, California, y expertos de instituciones de Estados Unidos y Polonia.
julio 21/2014 (NCYT)

Lauren H. Jepson,Pawel Hottowy,Geoffrey A. Weiner,WŇāadysŇāaw Dabrowski,Alan M. Litke,E.J. Chichilnisky.High-Fidelity Reproduction of Spatiotemporal Visual Signals for Retinal Prosthesis.Neuron Volume 83, Issue 1, p87‚Äď92, 2 Jul 2014,¬† doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2014.04.044

La presencia de hepatitis afecta a la producción de insulina 29 Jul 2014


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El ataque de virus al hígado propicia que se inflame y endurezca (hepatitis) y no realice algunas de sus funciones principales, entre ellas la participación en la producción de insulina en conjunto con el páncreas. La falta de esta hormona disparará los niveles de glucosa en sangre, al grado de catalogar al afectado como paciente diabético.

hepatitis1Lo anterior fue explicado por el doctor (NCYT)Paulo L√≥pez Guill√©n, titular de la Cl√≠nica de Infectolog√≠a Juan I. Menchaca del IMSS en Jalisco (M√©xico). A√Īadi√≥ que los virus que derivan en hepatitis B y C son a√ļn m√°s perjudiciales, ya que tienden a hacer la enfermedad cr√≥nica y da√Īar al h√≠gado paulatinamente.

El especialista advirtió que en alto porcentaje la hepatitis cursa sin síntomas evidentes, por lo cual es importante la realización periódica de estudios de laboratorio.

‚ÄúLa mayor√≠a de las personas infectadas cursa con una hepatitis que no van a generar un da√Īo hep√°tico agudo como para que tengamos un cuadro cl√≠nico de ictericia o coloraci√≥n amarillenta en la piel y en la parte blanca de los ojos (esclera)‚ÄĚ, refiere el infect√≥logo.

Recomendó especialmente las evaluaciones periódicas a las personas que hayan recibido transfusiones sanguíneas antes de 1986, así como quienes tengan piercings y tatuajes, o incluso aquellos adictos a drogas intravenosas, porque el virus C de la hepatitis se concentra en la sangre.

Una vez que el virus C de la hepatitis ingresa al organismo, “en el 95 %¬† de los casos se queda y puede pasar mucho tiempo antes de que se exprese, de ah√≠ que se le considere cr√≥nico; en el cinco por ciento restante, las personas que entran en contacto con el microorganismo forman anticuerpos que impiden al virus instalarse en el h√≠gado y por lo tanto “no quedan ni como portadores ni mucho menos llegan a enfermar”, puntualiz√≥ el especialista.

Sobre la forma de contagio de la hepatitis B, el médico dijo su mecanismo de transmisión es muy similar al del VIH e incluye la vía sexual y la sanguínea, de manera que es sumamente riesgosa.

El médico familiar a través de un análisis de la sangre (biometría hemática) puede identificar disminución en plaquetas, aumento en glóbulos blancos y anemia, lo cual debe hacerle sospechar de presencia de hepatitis; asimismo, es importante que se haga una prueba de la función hepática, esto también mediante un análisis de las enzimas del hígado, las transaminasas concretamente, las cuales tienden a elevarse como manifestación de problemas, en este importante órgano

Debido a que usa como transporte la sangre, la glucosa entra en contacto con prácticamente todos los órganos del cuerpo, de manera que es de vital importancia realizarse periódicas evaluaciones para mantener todo bajo control, sobre todo si se han identificado algunos riesgos de contagio.
julio 22/2014 (NCYT)

Consiguen catalogar más de cien factores genéticos de riesgo vinculados a la esquizofrenia 29 Jul 2014


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Se han presentado los resultados del mayor estudio genético molecular sobre la esquizofrenia realizado hasta la fecha. Un grupo de trabajo del Consorcio de Genética Psiquiátrica (PGC, por las siglas en inglés de Psychiatric Genetics Consortium), una iniciativa de cooperación internacional en la que participan más de 300 científicos de diversas instituciones en 35 países, ha logrado catalogar una cantidad sin precedentes de factores genéticos de riesgo para la esquizofrenia, lo que abre nuevas y reveladoras perspectivas sobre las causas biológicas específicas de esta severa dolencia mental.

EsquizofreniaEl estudio es el resultado de varios a√Īos de trabajo por parte del equipo internacional de Michael O‚ÄôDonovan, de la Universidad de Cardiff en el Reino Unido, y en el que han participado, entre otros, Nelson Freimer y Roel Ophoff de la Universidad de California en la ciudad estadounidense de Los √Āngeles (UCLA).

Examinando un total de 80 000 muestras de pacientes de esquizofrenia y voluntarios sanos de todas partes del mundo, los autores del macroestudio han determinado que 108 ubicaciones específicas en el genoma humano están vinculadas a la esquizofrenia. De ellas, 83 no habían sido relacionadas previamente con la enfermedad.

Tal como habían pronosticado los autores de la investigación, entre los genes implicados hay bastantes expresados en el tejido cerebral, particularmente aquellos relacionados con la función de las neuronas y las sinapsis. Entre ellos hay genes activos en vías que controlan la habilidad de cambio de las sinapsis neuronales, una función esencial para el aprendizaje y la memoria.

Adem√°s, los investigadores han encontrado un peque√Īo n√ļmero de genes asociados con la esquizofrenia que est√°n activos en el sistema inmunitario, un descubrimiento que ofrece alg√ļn apoyo a la hip√≥tesis previamente propuesta de que existe una conexi√≥n especial entre la esquizofrenia y los procesos inmunitarios.

La esquizofrenia es una dolencia psiqui√°trica incapacitante que afecta a m√°s de 24 millones de personas en el mundo.

Los s√≠ntomas provocados por¬† la afecci√≥n son variables, pero se caracterizan por ser una combinaci√≥n de alucinaciones, delirios (incluyendo los de car√°cter paranoide), cambios extremos de estado de √°nimo, apat√≠a y aislamiento social, entre otros. La enfermedad a menudo aparece en la adolescencia o a los veinte y pocos a√Īos de edad.

Su impacto de por vida sobre las personas afectadas, su entorno familiar y la sociedad, es alto, tanto en t√©rminos de a√Īos de vida sana perdidos por la discapacidad, como en cuanto al coste financiero que a menudo acarrea directa o indirectamente.

Muchos afectados responden bien al tratamiento, pero para un porcentaje considerable en el que los tratamientos comunes no funcionan, las opciones terapéuticas alternativas son limitadas, sobre todo porque los mecanismos biológicos subyacentes en la esquizofrenia han sido en buena parte desconocidos para la ciencia. Quizá ahora esta situación comience a cambiar, ya que parece que el inmenso caudal de información genética que el macroestudio ha aportado permitirá abrir nuevas líneas de investigación orientadas al desarrollo de nuevos tratamientos.
julio 23/2014 (NCYT)

Stephan Ripke,Benjamin M. Neale,Aiden Corvin,James T. R. Walters,Kai-How Farh,Michael O‚ÄôDonovan.Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci. Nature¬† 511,¬† 421‚Äď427, doi:10.1038/nature13595.24 Jul 2014

Descubierto el papel de la proteína tau en la enfermedad de Huntington 29 Jul 2014


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Un estudio del CIBERNED revela el papel de la proteína tau, asociada a procesos neurodegenerativos, hasta ahora desconocido en huntington. Su análisis podría presentar nuevas vías terapéuticas para la enfermedad, al englobarla dentro del grupo de las tauopatías, entre las que se encuentra el alzhéimer.

HuntingtonUn art√≠culo publicado en la revista Nature Medicine (doi: 10.1038/nm.3617) muestra c√≥mo el ARN mensajero ‚Äďcopia del ADN‚Äď de sujetos con la enfermedad de Huntington presenta alteraciones similares a las producidas en las enfermedades conocidas como tauopat√≠as (demencia frontotemporal, alzh√©imer, par√°lisis supranuclear progresiva y degeneraci√≥n corticobasal, entre otras).

Los autores, investigadores del Centro de Investigaci√≥n Biom√©dica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED) pertenecientes a distintos instituciones espa√Īolas, han comprobado que dichas alteraciones provocan un desbalance en los subtipos de la prote√≠na tau y el aumento de los niveles totales de la prote√≠na en los cerebros junto con dep√≥sitos de tau en forma de varilla a lo largo de los n√ļcleos neuronales.

Estas alteraciones de tau en el huntington podr√≠an explicar por qu√© esta es la √ļnica de las enfermedades por expansi√≥n de tripletes CAG (citosina-adenina-guanina) que cursa con afectaci√≥n de los ganglios basales del cerebro y con demencia cortical.

Adem√°s, esta relaci√≥n directa entre tau y huntington sugiere que, o bien la terapia g√©nica o bien terapias con peque√Īas mol√©culas relacionadas con tau que se encuentran en fase de desarrollo para algunas tauopat√≠as podr√≠an tambi√©n ser √ļtiles para el tratamiento de la enfermedad.

Seg√ļn Jos√© Javier Lucas, director del estudio, y Marta Fern√°ndez-Nogales, primera firmante del art√≠culo, ‚Äúeste hallazgo ha permitido identificar a la prote√≠na tau como mediadora de la enfermedad y, por tanto, las investigaciones se beneficiar√°n de lo mucho que ya se conoce sobre tau dado su papel en alzh√©imer y otras tauopat√≠as‚ÄĚ.

Adem√°s, ‚Äúlos dep√≥sitos de tau en forma de varilla detectados en el huntington no se conoc√≠an en alzh√©imer y podr√≠an aportar nuevas claves para el estudio de esta y las dem√°s tauopat√≠as‚ÄĚ, a√Īaden.

El trastorno de los movimientos involuntarios

La enfermedad de Huntington es un desorden neurodegenerativo de transmisi√≥n gen√©tica que provoca movimientos involuntarios, alteraciones psiqui√°tricas y demencia causados por una mutaci√≥n en el gen de la huntingtina (HTT) consistente en la expansi√≥n del n√ļmero de repeticiones del triplete CAG.

El papel de la prote√≠na tau, asociada al funcionamiento de unos componentes del citoesqueleto (los microt√ļbulos) responsables de la formaci√≥n y mantenimiento de la morfolog√≠a neuronal y de sus conexiones espec√≠ficas, hab√≠a sido hasta ahora estudiado en un determinado grupo de enfermedades neurodegenerativas, pero se desconoc√≠a que desempe√Īara un papel en este desorden.
julio 21/2014 (SNIC)

Marta Fern√°ndez-Nogales, Jorge R Cabrera, Mar√≠a Santos-Galindo, Jeroen J M Hoozemans, Isidro Ferrer, Jos√© J Lucas. ‚ÄúHuntington‚Äôs disease is a four-repeat tauopathy with tau nuclear rods‚ÄĚ. Nat Med. 2014 Jul 20.

Descubierta la mutación por la que bacterias de la tuberculosis se especializan en la infección 29 Jul 2014


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Investigadores de la Universidad de Zaragoza y del Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES) del Instituto de Salud Carlos III han descubierto la mutación por la que las diferentes bacterias de la tuberculosis se han especializado en la infección de personas o de ganado. Además este hallazgo explicaría por qué la bacteria de la tuberculosis bovina no se transmite entre humanos.

TBLos resultados de la investigación, publicados en la revista Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) (DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1406693111), ayudan a entender la historia evolutiva de la bacteria de esta enfermedad, proporcionan una explicación a las observaciones epidemiológicas previas y pueden contribuir a comprender y prevenir la tuberculosis.

En este trabajo, en el que también han participado investigadores franceses de la Universidad Paul Sabatier de Toulouse (CNRS) y del Instituto Pasteur de Paris, los investigadores han comparado los genomas de varias bacterias de origen humano o animal para comprender este fenómeno, y han encontrado la explicación en una mutación que solo está presente en las bacterias causantes de la tuberculosis en animales y que afecta a un sistema de regulación de la virulencia llamado PhoPR.

Para demostrarlo, los investigadores mutaron tan solo dos nucle√≥tidos ‚Äďde un total de 4 millones‚Äď en el genoma de M. bovis y observaron que la bacteria causante de la tuberculosis en vacas adquir√≠a algunas caracter√≠sticas propias de la bacteria que ocasiona la tuberculosis en humanos.

“Hoy, m√°s de 150 a√Īos despu√©s de la teor√≠a darwiniana sobre el origen de las especies, los cient√≠ficos contin√ļan aplicando estos principios a nivel molecular para entender y prevenir la propagaci√≥n de las enfermedades”, se√Īala Jes√ļs Gonzalo-Asensio, primer autor del trabajo e investigador del grupo de Micobacterias de la Universidad de Zaragoza, que dirige el catedr√°tico Carlos Mart√≠n,¬† perteneciente al CIBERES.

Una enfermedad muy letal

Con tres muertes cada minuto y 8 millones de nuevos casos al a√Īo, la tuberculosis sigue siendo, a principios del siglo XXI, una de las enfermedades infecciosas m√°s letales. En los humanos, esta enfermedad es causada por una bacteria que se transmite por v√≠a a√©rea llamada Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Adem√°s, la tuberculosis tambi√©n afecta a animales, causando no solo graves problemas econ√≥micos en ganado, sino adem√°s un potencial riesgo de transmisi√≥n a humanosprincipalmente a trav√©s del consumo de leche sin pasteurizar. Sorprendentemente, la tuberculosis bovina causada por la bacteria Mycobacterium bovis, una vez transmitida al hombre, raramente contin√ļa su transmisi√≥n a√©rea entre los humanos.
julio 21/2014 (SNIC)

Jes√ļs Gonzalo-Asensio, Wladimir Malaga, Alexandre Pawlik, Catherine Astarie-Dequeker, Charlotte Passemar, Flavie Moreau, Fran√ßoise Laval, Mamadou Daff√©, Carlos Martin, Roland Brosch & Christophe Guilhot. ‚ÄúEvolutionary history of tuberculosis shaped by conserved mutations in the PhoPR virulence regulator‚ÄĚ. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). Jul 21 2014

 
 
 
Clínica Central Cira García
IPK (Instituto de Medicina Tropical)
IPK (Instituto de Medicina Tropical)
INOR
Instituto Nacional de Oncológica y Radiobiologia
Ciren
CIREN(Centro Internacional de Restauración Neurológica).
Centro de Salud La Pradera
Centro Internacional de Salud La Pradera
 
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